pacing 文学

  姓名:约翰·济慈
  性别:男
  出生年月:1795~1821
  出生地:伦敦
  国籍:英国

  济慈(1795~1821)英国诗人,他出生于伦敦,父亲是马厩的雇工领班。济慈自幼喜爱文学,由于家境窘困,不满16岁就离校学医。济慈的父母在其青少年时期相续去世,虽然两个兄弟和一个姐姐非常照顾他,但那种过早失去父母的悲伤始终影响着济慈。在埃菲尔德学校(Enfield School),济慈接受了传统正规的 教育 ,在阅读和写作方面,济慈受到了师长克拉克(Charles Cowden Clarke)的鼓励。年轻的济慈非常钟爱 维吉尔 (Virgil),14岁时,他将维吉尔的长诗《艾涅阿斯纪》("Aeneid")翻译成 英语 。 1810年 ,济慈被送去当药剂师的学徒。五年后济慈考入伦敦的一所医学院,但没有一年,济慈便放弃了从医的志愿,而专心于写作 诗歌 。济慈很早就尝试写作诗歌,他早期的作品多是一些仿作,1816年,他认识了李·亨特、雪莱等著名诗人,受到他们的影响。11月,他弃医从文,走上了诗歌创作的道路。终于成为当时英国文坛上一颗光彩夺目的巨星。
  1817年 ,济慈的第一本诗集出版。这本诗集受到了一些好的评论,但也有一些极为苛刻的攻击性评论刊登在当时很有影响力的一本 杂志 (Blackwood`s magazine)上。济慈没有被吓倒,他在来年的春天付印了新诗集《恩底弥翁》(“Endymion”)。 1818年 夏天,济慈前往 英格兰 北部和苏格兰旅行,途中得到消息说他的兄弟汤姆得了严重的肺结核,济慈即刻赶回家照顾汤姆。这一年年底,汤姆死了,济慈搬到一个朋友在汉普斯泰德(Hampstead)的房子去住,现在人们已将那所房子认为济慈之家。在那里,济慈遇见并深深的爱上了一位年轻的女邻居,方妮·布朗(Fanny Brawne)。在接下来的几年中,疾病与 经济 上的问题一直困扰着济慈,但他却令人惊讶的写出了大量的优秀作品,其中包括《圣艾格尼丝之夜》、《夜莺颂》和《致秋天》等名作。 1820年 3月,济慈第一次咳血,之后不久,因为迅速恶化的肺结核, 1821年 2月23日 ,济慈于去 意大利 疗养的途中逝世。
  济慈创作的第一首诗是《仿斯宾塞》,接着又写了许多优秀的十四行诗,他的这些早期诗作收集在1817年3月出版的第一本《诗集》中。次年,他根据古希腊一个美丽神话写成的《安狄米恩》问世,全诗想象丰富,色彩绚丽,洋溢着对自由的渴望,表现了反古典主义的进步倾向。
  1818年到1820年,是济慈诗歌创作的鼎盛时期,他先后完成了《伊莎贝拉》、《圣亚尼节前夜》、《许佩里恩》等著名长诗,最脍炙人口的《夜莺颂》、《希腊古瓮颂》、《秋颂》等名篇也是在这一时期内写成的。
  济慈诗才横溢,与雪莱、拜伦齐名。他年仅25岁,可是他遗下的诗篇一直誉满人间,被认为完美地体现了西方浪漫主义诗歌的特色,并被推崇为欧洲浪漫主义运动的杰出代表。
  附诗一首

  Ode To A Nightingale

  John Keats
  夜莺颂

  济慈

  My heart aches and a drowsy numbness pains
  My sense as though of hemlock I had drunk
  Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains
  One minute past and Lethe-wards had sunk

  我的心痛,困顿和麻木
  毒害了感官,犹如饮过毒鸩,
  又似刚把鸦片吞服,
  一分钟的时间,字句在忘川中沉没

  Tis not through envy of thy happy lot
  But being too happy in thine happiness --
  That thou light-winged Dryad of the trees
  In some melodious plot
  Of beechen green and shadows numberless
  Singest of summer in full-throated ease.

  并不是在嫉妒你的幸运,
  是为着你的幸运而大感快乐,
  你,林间轻翅的精灵,
  在山毛榉绿影下的情结中,
  放开了歌喉,歌唱夏季。

  O for a draught of vintage! that hath been
  Coold a long age in the deep-delved earth
  Tasting of Flora and the country green
  Dance and Provencal song and sunburnt mirth!
  O for a beaker full of the warm South
  Full of the true the blushful Hippocrene
  With beaded bubbles winking at the brim
  And purple-stained mouth
  That I might drink and leave the world unseen
  And with thee fade away into the forest dim
  哎,一口酒!那冷藏
  在地下多年的甘醇,
  味如花神、绿土、
  舞蹈、恋歌和灼热的欢乐!
  哎,满满一杯南方的温暖,
  充满了鲜红的灵感之泉,
  杯沿闪动着珍珠的泡沫,
  和唇边退去的紫色;
  我要一饮以不见尘世,
  与你循入森林幽暗的深处

  Fade far away dissolve and quite forget
  What thou among the leaves hast never known
  The weariness the fever and the fret
  Here where men sit and hear each other groan;
  Where palsy shakes a few sad last gray hairs
  Where youth grows pale and spectre-thin and dies;
  Where but to think is to be full of sorrow
  And leaden-eyed despairs
  Where Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes
  Or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow.

  远远的离开,消失,彻底忘记
  林中的你从不知道的,
  疲惫、热病和急躁
  这里,人们坐下并听着彼此的呻吟;
  瘫痪摇动了一会儿,悲伤了,最后的几丝白发,
  青春苍白,古怪的消瘦下去,后来死亡;
  铅色的眼睛绝望着;
  美人守不住明眸,
  新的恋情过不完明天。

  Away! away! for I will fly to thee
  Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards
  But on the viewless wings of Poesy
  Though the dull brain perplexes and retards
  Already with thee! tender is the night
  And haply the Queen-Moon is on her throne
  Clusterd around by all her starry Fays;
  But here there is no light
  Save what from heaven is with the breezes blown
  Through verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways.

  去吧!去吧!我要飞向你,
  不用酒神的车辗和他的随从,
  乘着诗歌无形的翅膀,
  尽管这混沌的头脑早已跟随你,
  夜色温柔,而月后
  正登上她的宝座,
  周围是她所有的星星仙子,
  但这处那处都没有光,
  一些天光被微风吹入幽绿,
  和青苔的曲径。

  I cannot see what flowers are at my feet
  Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs
  But in embalmed darkness guess each sweet
  Wherewith the seasonable month endows
  The grass the thicket and the fruit-tree wild;
  White hawthorn and the pastoral eglantine;
  Fast fading violets coverd up in leaves;
  And mid-Mays eldest child
  The coming musk-rose full of dewy wine
  The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.

  我不能看清是哪些花在我的脚旁,
  何种软香悬于高枝,
  但在温馨的暗处,猜测每一种甜蜜
  以其时令的赠与
  青草地、灌木丛、野果树
  白山楂和田园玫瑰;
  叶堆中易谢的紫罗兰;
  还有五与中旬的首出,
  这啜满了露酒的麝香蔷薇,
  夏夜蝇子嗡嗡的出没其中。

  Darkling I listen; and for many a time
  I have been half in love with easeful Death
  Calld him soft names in many a mused rhyme
  To take into the air my quiet breath;
  Now more than ever seems it rich to die
  To cease upon the midnight with no pain
  While thou art pouring forth thy soul abroad
  In such an ecstasy!
  Still wouldst thou sing and I have ears in vain--
  To thy high requiem become a sod.

  我倾听黑夜,多少次
  我几乎爱上了逸谧的死亡,
  在如此多的沉思之韵中呼唤她轻柔的名,
  编织成歌,我无声的呼吸;
  现在她更加华丽的死去,
  在午夜不带悲伤的飞升,
  当你正向外倾泻灵魂
  这般的迷狂!
  你仍唱着,而我听不见,
  你那高昂的安魂曲对着一搓泥土。

  Thou wast not born for death immortal Bird!
  No hungry generations tread thee down;
  The voice I hear this passing night was heard
  In ancient days by emperor and clown:
  Perhaps the self-same song that found a path
  Through the sad heart of Ruth when sick for home
  She stood in tears amid the alien corn;
  The same that oft-times hath
  Charmd magic casements opening on the foam
  Of perilous seas in faery lands forlorn.
  Forlorn! the very word is like a bell
  To toll me back from thee to my sole self!
  Adieu! the fancy cannot cheat so well
  As she is famd to do deceiving elf.
  Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades
  Past the near meadows over the still stream
  Up the hill-side; and now tis buried deep
  In the next valley-glades:
  Was it a vision or a waking dream?
  Fled is that music:--Do I wake or sleep?
  永生的鸟啊!你不为了死亡出生!
  饥饿的时代无法把你蹂躏;
  这逝去的夜晚里我所听见的
  在那远古的日子也曾为帝王和小丑听见;
  可能相同的歌在露丝那颗忧愁的心中
  找到了一条路径,当她思念故乡,
  站在异邦的谷田中落泪;
  这声音常常
  在遗失的仙城中震动了窗扉
  望向泡沫浪花
  遗失!这个字如同一声钟响
  把我从你处带会我单独自我!
  别了!幻想无法继续欺骗
  当她不再能够,
  别了!别了!你哀伤的圣歌
  退入了后面的草地,流过溪水,
  涌上山坡;而此时,它正深深
  埋在下一个山谷的阴影中:
  是幻觉,还是梦寐?
  那歌声去了:我醒了?我睡着?约翰·济慈
约翰·济慈(John Keats,1795年—1821年)出生于18世纪末年的伦敦,他是杰出的英诗作家之一,也是浪漫派的主要成员。济慈的父母在其青少年时期相续去世,虽然两个兄弟和一个姐姐非常照顾他,但那种过早失去父母的悲伤始终影响着济慈。在埃菲尔德学校(Enfield School),济慈接受了传统正规的教育,在阅读和写作方面,济慈受到了师长克拉克(Charles Cowden Clarke)的鼓励。年轻的济慈非常钟爱维吉尔(Virgil),14岁时,他将维吉尔的长诗《艾涅阿斯纪》("Aeneid")翻译成英语。1810年,济慈被送去当药剂师的学徒。五年后济慈考入伦敦的一所医学院,但没有一年,济慈便放弃了从医的志愿,而专心于写作诗歌。济慈很早就尝试写作诗歌,他早期的作品多是一些仿作,1817年,济慈的第一本诗集出版。这本诗集受到了一些好的评论,但也有一些极为苛刻的攻击性评论刊登在当时很有影响力的一本杂志(Blackwood`s magazine)上。济慈没有被吓倒,他在来年的春天付印了新诗集《恩底弥翁》(“Endymion”)。1818年夏天,济慈前往英格兰北部和苏格兰旅行,途中得到消息说他的兄弟汤姆得了严重的肺结核,济慈即刻赶回家照顾汤姆。这一年年底,汤姆死了,济慈搬到一个朋友在汉普斯泰德(Hampstead)的房子去住,现在人们已将那所房子认为济慈之家。在那里,济慈遇见并深深的爱上了一位年轻的女邻居,方妮·布朗(Fanny Brawne)。在接下来的几年中,疾病与经济上的问题一直困扰着济慈,但他却令人惊讶的写出了大量的优秀作品,其中包括《圣艾格尼丝之夜》、《夜莺颂》和《致秋天》等名作。1820年3月,济慈第一次咳血,之后不久,因为迅速恶化的肺结核,1821年2月23日,济慈于去意大利疗养的途中逝世。

附诗一首

Ode To A Nightingale

John Keats
夜莺颂

济慈

My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains
One minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk

我的心痛,困顿和麻木
毒害了感官,犹如饮过毒鸩,
又似刚把鸦片吞服,
一分钟的时间,字句在忘川中沉没

Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,
But being too happy in thine happiness,--
That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees
In some melodious plot
Of beechen green, and shadows numberless,
Singest of summer in full-throated ease.

并不是在嫉妒你的幸运,
是为着你的幸运而大感快乐,
你,林间轻翅的精灵,
在山毛榉绿影下的情结中,
放开了歌喉,歌唱夏季。

O, for a draught of vintage! that hath been
Coold a long age in the deep-delved earth,
Tasting of Flora and the country green,
Dance, and Provencal song, and sunburnt mirth!
O for a beaker full of the warm South,
Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene,
With beaded bubbles winking at the brim,
And purple-stained mouth
That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,
And with thee fade away into the forest dim
哎,一口酒!那冷藏
在地下多年的甘醇,
味如花神、绿土、
舞蹈、恋歌和灼热的欢乐!
哎,满满一杯南方的温暖,
充满了鲜红的灵感之泉,
杯沿闪动着珍珠的泡沫,
和唇边退去的紫色;
我要一饮以不见尘世,
与你循入森林幽暗的深处

Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget
What thou among the leaves hast never known,
The weariness, the fever, and the fret
Here, where men sit and hear each other groan;
Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last gray hairs,
Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies;
Where but to think is to be full of sorrow
And leaden-eyed despairs,
Where Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes,
Or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow.

远远的离开,消失,彻底忘记
林中的你从不知道的,
疲惫、热病和急躁
这里,人们坐下并听着彼此的呻吟;
瘫痪摇动了一会儿,悲伤了,最后的几丝白发,
青春苍白,古怪的消瘦下去,后来死亡;
铅色的眼睛绝望着;
美人守不住明眸,
新的恋情过不完明天。

Away! away! for I will fly to thee,
Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards,
But on the viewless wings of Poesy,
Though the dull brain perplexes and retards
Already with thee! tender is the night,
And haply the Queen-Moon is on her throne,
Clusterd around by all her starry Fays;
But here there is no light,
Save what from heaven is with the breezes blown
Through verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways.

去吧!去吧!我要飞向你,
不用酒神的车辗和他的随从,
乘着诗歌无形的翅膀,
尽管这混沌的头脑早已跟随你,
夜色温柔,而月后
正登上她的宝座,
周围是她所有的星星仙子,
但这处那处都没有光,
一些天光被微风吹入幽绿,
和青苔的曲径。

I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,
Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs,
But, in embalmed darkness, guess each sweet
Wherewith the seasonable month endows
The grass, the thicket, and the fruit-tree wild;
White hawthorn, and the pastoral eglantine;
Fast fading violets coverd up in leaves;
And mid-Mays eldest child,
The coming musk-rose, full of dewy wine,
The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.

我不能看清是哪些花在我的脚旁,
何种软香悬于高枝,
但在温馨的暗处,猜测每一种甜蜜
以其时令的赠与
青草地、灌木丛、野果树
白山楂和田园玫瑰;
叶堆中易谢的紫罗兰;
还有五与中旬的首出,
这啜满了露酒的麝香蔷薇,
夏夜蝇子嗡嗡的出没其中。

Darkling I listen; and, for many a time
I have been half in love with easeful Death,
Calld him soft names in many a mused rhyme,
To take into the air my quiet breath;
Now more than ever seems it rich to die,
To cease upon the midnight with no pain,
While thou art pouring forth thy soul abroad
In such an ecstasy!
Still wouldst thou sing, and I have ears in vain--
To thy high requiem become a sod.

我倾听黑夜,多少次
我几乎爱上了逸谧的死亡,
在如此多的沉思之韵中呼唤她轻柔的名,
编织成歌,我无声的呼吸;
现在她更加华丽的死去,
在午夜不带悲伤的飞升,
当你正向外倾泻灵魂
这般的迷狂!
你仍唱着,而我听不见,
你那高昂的安魂曲对着一搓泥土。

Thou wast not born for death, immortal Bird!
No hungry generations tread thee down;
The voice I hear this passing night was heard
In ancient days by emperor and clown:
Perhaps the self-same song that found a path
Through the sad heart of Ruth, when, sick for home,
She stood in tears amid the alien corn;
The same that oft-times hath
Charmd magic casements, opening on the foam
Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn.
Forlorn! the very word is like a bell
To toll me back from thee to my sole self!
Adieu! the fancy cannot cheat so well
As she is famd to do, deceiving elf.
Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades
Past the near meadows, over the still stream,
Up the hill-side; and now tis buried deep
In the next valley-glades:
Was it a vision, or a waking dream?
Fled is that music:--Do I wake or sleep?
永生的鸟啊!你不为了死亡出生!
饥饿的时代无法把你蹂躏;
这逝去的夜晚里我所听见的
在那远古的日子也曾为帝王和小丑听见;
可能相同的歌在露丝那颗忧愁的心中
找到了一条路径,当她思念故乡,
站在异邦的谷田中落泪;
这声音常常
在遗失的仙城中震动了窗扉
望向泡沫浪花
遗失!这个字如同一声钟响
把我从你处带会我单独自我!
别了!幻想无法继续欺骗
当她不再能够,
别了!别了!你哀伤的圣歌
退入了后面的草地,流过溪水,
涌上山坡;而此时,它正深深
埋在下一个山谷的阴影中:
是幻觉,还是梦寐?
那歌声去了:我醒了?我睡着?

再附一首代表作: La Belle sans Merci:A Ballad

1
O what can ail thee,kings at arms,
Alone and palely loitering?
The sedge has witherd from the lake,
And no birds sing.

2
O what can ail thee,kings at arms,
So haggard and so woe-begone?
The squirrels granary is full,
And the Harvests done.

3
I see a lily on thy brow
With anguish moist and fever dew,
And no thy cheeks a fading rose
Fast withered too.

4
I met a lady in the meads,
Full beautiful,and a fairys child;
Her hair was long,her foot was light,
And her eyes were wild.

5
I made a garland for her head,
And bracelets too,and Fragrant zone;
She looked at me as she did love,
And made sweet moan.

6
I set her on my pacing street,
And nothing else saw all day long,
For sidelong would she bend,and sing
A fairys song.

7
She found me roots of relish sweet,
And honey wild,and manna dew,
And sure in languages strange she said--
I love thee true.

8
She took me to her elfin grot,
And there she wept,and sighd full score,
And there I shut her wild wild eyes
With kisses four.

9
And there she lulled me asleep,
And there I dreamd--Ah!Woe betide!
The latest dream I ever dreamd
On the cold hills side.

10
I saw pale kings,and princes too,
Pale warriors,death pale were they all;
They cried--La belle dame sans merci
Hath thee in thrall!

11
I saw their starvd lips in the gloam
With horrid warning gaped wide,
And I awoke and found me here
On the cold hills side.

12
And this in why I sojourned here,
Alone and palely loitering,
Though the sedge has witherd from the lake,
And no birds sing.
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